Highlander dialect

Highlander dialect

As long as the male costume comes from, despite the changes, from the traditional style of dress of Wallachian Carpathian shepherds, the language of such borrowings has few. They are mainly limited to pastoral vocabulary and names related to mountain ranges. Terms: host, juhas or gunia come from Hungarian, while the shepherd, flock or żętyca from Romanian. The name of the Carpathians is also Romanian, in Poland, taking the form of Krapak, Mickiewicz's Krępak (at Mrs. Twardowska: "High to the top of Krępak"). The Carpathians were called the Hungarian Mountains. The term Beskids is of Balkan or Albanian origin; Romanian – Hillock. The etymology of the name of the Tatra Mountains is uncertain. W XIX w. she was led away from the Tatars, according to a folk tale, how it went under the peaks and was cut out in the ambush – in the Sienkiewicz's version, the Swedes replaced the Tatar Deluge. When in 1818 r. Austrian governor Hauer visited Podhale, he was informed, that the highlanders descended from the Tatars, hence the name of the mountains.

Apart from Wallachian relics, many Slovak words have entered the dialect; The interweaving of the speech with Slovak words was of a good tone, it proved the skill of the storyteller – attendant of fairs on the Slovak side. It was similar with the use of thieves' dialect, known by robbers in many castle dungeons.

Dialect is a variant of the Polish language; like most folk dialects, it has a tendency to "mazur" – consonants sz, NS, cz, j are replaced with consonants in the pronunciation: s, z, c, dz, np.: syrups instead of wide, cas instead of time. In literary Polish, y is pronounced after such consonants, never and, which would soften the pronunciation, the dialectical articulation has retained and: cake instead of clean, zito instead of rye. The process of similarity of voiced h and voiceless ch in the case of the highlander dialect took place under the influence of the Czech and Slovak languages – if ch is in the voice, is pronounced k, np. dak (top, roof) or duk (spirit), in the middle of the word it almost fades to the pie'ota form (infantry), whether they passed (they passed). Also under the influence of the language of its southern neighbors, the consonant g is pronounced like h – gross (thick or rich), cock (collection), holly (bare).

A specific melody unknown in other parts of the country is associated with the accentuation of the first, not the penultimate syllable in a word. Preserved archaic variety – the old form of the subjunctive of the type was bull, would, instead of, would, would do, affecting the pronunciation of the ending m, in the past tense, was instead of doing, I was - inspired Sienkiewicz to use the dialect in the novel Teutonic Knights as medieval Polish. So Zbyszko and Jagienka speak a stylized highlander dialect.


In Podhale, where in one village the inhabitants had the same surnames, often derived from the name of the place (np. The Krzeptowski family from Krzeptówki), to properly identify someone, nicknames were used. That's why the highlander says his name (name), how is it called (nickname) and how to spell (last name). When creating them, descriptions of "how to go to it" were also often used, np. "With grace”, "under the hood".